Endocrine hypertension is a type of high blood pressure caused by a hormone imbalance. Most often these disorders originate in the pituitary or adrenal gland and can be caused when the glands produce too much or not enough of the hormones they normally secrete.
There are several types of endocrine hypertension, including:
Primary hyperaldosteronism: a hormonal disorder that leads to high blood pressure when the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone hormone, which raises sodium levels in the blood.
Pheochromocytoma: a rare endocrine tumor originating in the medulla, the inner part of the adrenal gland; causes the release of excessive amounts of hormones that control responses to stress, heart rate and blood pressure.
Paraganglioma: a tumor that originates from the cortex, the outside of the adrenal glands; most often these are located in the head and neck region, heart, bladder, spine, chest, abdomen, or pelvis and produce excessive amounts of the catecholamine hormone, which can lead to high blood pressure.
Most often, treatment for these types of hypertension focuses on the cause of the high blood pressure. Sometimes, additional blood pressure medication may be prescribed.
Genetic tests may be appropriate in selected patients with a neuroendocrine tumor or pheochromocytoma.