Testicular cancer occurs when malignant cells form from the tissues of the testis. The testicles are a paired sex gland of the male that produce and store sperm, and also produce testosterone. They are located in the scrotum.
Testicular cancer maybe more common in people with a personal or family history of testicular cancer, a disorder of abnormal testicle development (such as Klinefelter Syndrome), or with a history of undescended testicle (that did not come down into scrotum before birth).
Testicular cancer may present with a painless ‘lump’ or mass in the testicle, and may lead to a sensation of heaviness in the scrotum, a dull ache of the abdomen or groin, sudden fluid in the scrotum, pain or discomfort of the testicle or scrotum, and in advanced cases lower back pain or breast enlargement. The diagnosis usually can be suspected by history and physical exam, but will also require some blood work and imaging (ultrasound, CT scan) and surgery to remove the testis for examination by the pathologists.
The treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation and depend on the cell type of the cancer as well as the stage.
As with all of our cancer patients, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, with urologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and clinical trial specialists to determine the full spectrum of treatment options available and most suitable for an individual patient.