We care for about 3,500 pregnant women every year. While that number has remained fairly steady over the past decade, the number of those women with high-risk pregnancies increases every year.
Because “high-risk pregnancy” is a catch-all term that includes factors such as age and chronic health problems, it can be difficult to determine exactly how many of these women there are. But my colleagues and I can tell you that we’re treating more women who fall into this category than ever before.
The most severe pregnancy complications – such as eclampsia, heart failure and hemorrhage – are referred to as severe maternal morbidity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the severe maternal morbidity rate has more than doubled from 2000 to 2010, and now affects 650,000 women in the United States every year.
Many factors contribute to this increase, but the two we see most often in the District of Columbia are obesity and advanced maternal age.
1. How obesity can complicate pregnancy
Nearly one in four U.S. women was considered obese when they became pregnant in 2014. While the rate of pre-pregnancy obesity in D.C. was lower than the national average at about one in five women, we still feel the effects of this epidemic.
Obesity is defined as having a body mass index greater than 29.9, and it can increase the risk of problems during pregnancy, including:
- Birth defects
- Gestational diabetes
- Preterm birth or stillbirth
Excess body fat also can make it difficult to analyze an ultrasound and monitor fetal heart rate.
Obesity also increase a person’s risk for health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart conditions. Our patients are not nearly as healthy going into pregnancy as they once were. I commonly find myself caring for patients with a condition that requires me to collaborate with a specialist such as a cardiologist.
The number one thing you can do to decrease the risk of obesity-related pregnancy complications is to lose weight before you become pregnant. Talk with your doctor about lifestyle changes you can make to reach a healthier weight.
2. More D.C. women delaying pregnancy until 35 or older
Not even 15 years ago, I would have exclaimed, “Whoa! You have a 45-year-old patient who’s pregnant?” These days, we don’t blink an eye at a pregnant woman in her 40s.
The District of Columbia is somewhat unique in that we have more professional women who delay having children until they are older.
- The birth rate for D.C. women age 35 to 39 was 72.7 births per 1,000 women in 2015, compared with 51.8 nationwide.
- The birth rate for D.C. women age 40-44 was 21.8 births per 1,000 women in 2015, compared with 11 nationwide.
- The birth rate for D.C. women age 45-49 was 2.5 births per 1,000 women in 2015, compared with 0.8 nationwide.
It’s wonderful to have the option to wait to have children until you’re in your late 30s and early 40s. However, it does increase certain risks for mom and baby, including:
- Birth defects
- Gestational diabetes
- High blood pressure
- Premature birth
We may recommend additional testing and screening if you are 35 and older to detect certain birth defects. The best thing you can do if you’re 35 or older and want to get pregnant is to talk with your Ob/Gyn about your specific risk factors and how to go into pregnancy as healthy as possible.
Reduce and manage pregnancy risks
Obesity and advanced maternal age are just two factors for the increase in high-risk pregnancies. Thanks to advances in science, we’re also caring for more women who are having multiples (twins or more), have had organ transplants or are cancer survivors. We also see a number of pregnant women who have HIV.
With proper preparation, we’re better able to manage the increased risks of these health factors. Request an appointment with an Ob/Gyn or maternal-fetal medicine specialist to discuss your unique challenges. The doctor can help you prepare for pregnancy and manage your and your baby’s health during pregnancy, labor and delivery.
Don’t be afraid to ask your doctor questions. These can include:
- How can I get healthier before I become pregnant?
- What type of prenatal testing will be done?
- Should I stop or adjust my medications?
- Will I need extra ultrasounds to monitor my baby’s health?
- Will I need additional prenatal appointments?
We may care for high-risk pregnancies more often, but each pregnancy is different and comes with its own challenges. We want the same thing for every woman: to go home with a healthy baby.